Code: ABS 092
Country: India (north-west)
Date: 650 - 750
Dimensions in cm WxHxD: 9.1 x 12.2 x 5.8
Materials: Bronze; inlaid with silver and copper
The separately cast nimbus earlier attached to a projection at the back is lost. The garment is decorated with chased folds.
The eyes and the belt buckle are inlaid with "silver", and the lips and nipples with copper.
The bottom of the pedestal has been sealed at a later date in Tibet with a plain copper plate.
Avalokitesvara Padmapani (Tib. Phyag na padmo) is seated in the vamardhaparyanka attitude with the left leg pendant on a cushion placed upon an oval throne which is mounted upon a single lotus pedestal with a graded rim. The right hand displays the “pensive gesture”, characterising the meditating forms of Avalokitesvara, and holds with the left hand the stalk of a lotus flower (padma) blossoming at the left shoulder. Padmapani is clad with a cloth (dhoti) tied around the waist and carries a shawl around the shoulders and tied around the arms with the ends falling upon the pedestal at the back. He wears princely ornaments, namely a one-pointed crown ornamented in front of the elaborately hair decorated in front with a small effigy of Amitabha, earrings, a necklace, and ornaments at the upper arms and wrists.
In correspondence with modern terminology, all male Bodhisattva images with a lotus emblem (padma) and the effigy of Amitabha in the crown or hair are identified in this publication as Avalokitesvara Padmapani (Tib. Phyag na padmo). In traditional Indian Sanskrit literature this deity is variously named Lokesvara (SM 280; NSP 26), Lokesa (SM 83), Avalokitesvara (NSP 2) or Lokanatha– standing (abhanga), in the diamond attitude (vajraparyankasana), the noble attitude (sattvaparyankasana) or the attitude of ease (lalitasana) (SM 8, 18, 19, 41).
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Chinese: Guan Yin
Vietnamese: Quan The Am
Venerated by: Mahayana, Vajrayana, Theravada (unofficial)
Attributes: Great Compassion
Avalokitesvara ( lit. "Lord who looks down") is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. He is the one of the more widely revered bodhisattvas in mainstream Mahayana Buddhism. In China and its sphere of cultural influence, Avalokitesvara is often depicted in a female form known as Guan Yin. (It should be noted that in Taoist mythology, Guan Yin has other origination stories which are unrelated to Avalokitesvara.)
Avalokitesvara is also referred to as Padmapani ("Holder of the Lotus") or Lokesvara ("Lord of the World"). In Tibetan, Avalokitesvara is known as Chenrezig, and is said to be incarnated in the Dalai Lama, the Karmapa and other high Lamas. In Mongolia, he is called Migjid Janraisig, Xongsim Bodisadv-a, or Nidüber Üjegci.
The name Avalokitesvara is made of the following parts: the verbal prefix ava, which means "down"; lokita, a past participle of the verb lok ("to notice, behold, observe"), here used in an active sense (an occasional irregularity of Sanskrit grammar); and finally īsvara, "lord", "ruler", "sovereign" or "master". In accordance with the rules of sound combination, isvara becomes esvara. Combined, the parts mean "lord who gazes down (at the world)". The word loka ("world") is absent from the name, but the phrase is implied.
It was initially thought that the Chinese mis-transliterated the word Avalokitesvara as Avalokitesvara, but, according to recent research, the original form was Avalokitasvara with the ending svara ("sound, noise"), which means "sound perceiver", literally "he who has perceived sound" (the cries of sentient beings who need his help). This is the exact equivalent of the Chinese translation Guan Yin. This name was later supplanted by the form containing the ending -īsvara, which does not occur in Sanskrit before the seventh century. The original form Avalokitasvara already appears in Sanskrit fragments of the fifth century.
The original meaning of the name fits the Buddhist understanding of the role of a bodhisattva. The reinterpretation presenting him as an īśvara shows a strong influence of Shaivism, as the term īśvara was usually connected to the Hindu notion of a creator god and ruler of the world. Attributes of such a god were transmitted to the bodhisattva, but the mainstream of the Avalokiteśvara worshippers upheld the Buddhist rejection of the doctrine of any creator god.
An etymology of the Tibetan name Chenrezig is chen (eye), re (continuity) and zig (to look). This gives the meaning of one who always looks upon all beings (with the eye of compassion).
Western scholars have not reached a consensus on the origin of the reverence for Avalokitesvara. Some have suggested that Avalokitesvara, along with many other supernatural beings in Buddhism, was a borrowing or absorption by Mahayana Buddhism of one or more Hindu deities, in particular Shiva or Vishnu.
In Theravada, Lokesvara, "the lord, ruler or sovereign beholder of the world", name of a Buddha; probably a development of the idea of Brahma, Vishnu or Siva as lokanatha, "lord of worlds". In Indo-China especially it refers to Avalokitesvara, whose image or face, in masculine form, is frequently seen, e.g., at Angkor. A Buddha under whom Amitabha, in a previous existence, entered into the ascetic life and made his forty-eight vows.
According to Mahayana doctrine, Avalokitesvara is the bodhisattva who has made a great vow to listen to the prayers of all sentient beings in times of difficulty, and to postpone his own Buddhahood until he has assisted every being on Earth in achieving nirvana. Mahayana sutras associated with Avalokitesvara include the Heart Sutra (as disciple of the historical Buddha Shakyamuni) and the Lotus Sutra, particularly the 25th chapter, which is sometimes referred to as the Avalokitesvara Sutra.
Six forms of Avalokitesvara in Mahayana (defined by Tian-tai, terrace) 1. great compassion, 2. great loving-kindness, 3. lion-courage, 4. universal light, 5. leader amongst gods and men, 6. the great omnipresent Brahma. Each of this bodhisattva's six qualities of pity, etc., breaks the hindrances respectively of the (6 realms) hells, pretas (hungry ghost), animals, asuras (demi god), men, and devas.
In the Tibetan tradition, Avalokitesvara is seen as arising from two sources. One is the relative source, where in a previous eon (kalpa) a devoted, compassionate Buddhist monk became a bodhisattva, transformed in the present kalpa into Avalokitesvara. That is not in conflict, however, with the ultimate source, which is Avalokitesvara as the universal manifestation of compassion. The bodhisattva is viewed as the anthropomorphised vehicle for the actual deity, serving to bring about a better understanding of Avalokitesvara to humankind.
Seven forms of Avalokiteśvara in esoteric Buddhism:
1. Amoghapasa, not empty (or unerring) net, or lasso
2. Vara-sahasrabhuja-locana/Sahasrabhujasahasranetra, 1000-hand and 1000-eye
3. Hayagriva, horseheaded
4. Ekadasamukha, 11-faced
6. Cintamani-cakra; wheel of sovereign power
7. arya Lokitesvara, the Holy sovereign beholder of the world (loka), a translation of tsvara, means "ruler" or "sovereign", holy one.
Although Theravada Buddhism does not accept bodhisattvas, Avalokitesvara is popularly worshiped in Burma, where she is called Lokanat, and Thailand, where she is called Lokesvara.
Tibetan Buddhism relates Chenrezig to the six-syllable mantra Om Mani Padme Hum. Thus, Chenrezig is also called Shadakshari ("Lord of the Six Syllables"). The connection between this famous mantra and Avalokitesvara already occurs in the Karandavyuha Sutra (probably late fourth or early fifth century), one of the first Buddhist works to have reached Tibet (before the end of the fifth century).
In Shingon Buddhism, the mantra used to praise Avalokitesvara is On Aro-rikya Sowaka (Oh, Unstained One, Hail!), but Om Mani Padme Hum is occasionally used as well.
The Great Compassion Mantra is an 82 syllable mantra spoken by Avalokitesvara to the assembly of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, and extolling the merits of chanting the mantra. This mantra is popular in China, Japan and Taiwan.
The thousand arms of Avalokitesvara
One prominent Buddhist story tells of Avalokitesvara vowing never to rest until he had freed all sentient beings from samsara. Despite strenuous effort, he realizes that still many unhappy beings were yet to be saved. After struggling to comprehend the needs of so many, his head splits into eleven pieces. Amitabha Buddha, seeing his plight, gives him eleven heads with which to hear the cries of the suffering. Upon hearing these cries and comprehending them, Avalokitesvara attempts to reach out to all those who needed aid but found that his two arms shattered into pieces. Once more, Amitabha comes to his aid and invests him with a thousand arms with which to aid the suffering multitudes.
Many Himalayan versions of the tale include eight arms with which Avalokitesvara skilfully upholds the dharma, each possessing its own particular implement, while more Chinese-specific ones give varying accounts of this number.
The Bao'en Temple located in northwestern Sichuan province, China has an outstanding wooden image of the thousand armed Avalokiteśvara, an example of Ming Dynasty decorative sculpture.
Tibetan Buddhist beliefs concerning Chenrezig
Avalokitesvara is an important deity in Tibetan Buddhism, and is regarded in the Vajrayana teachings as a Buddha. In the Mahayana teachings he is in general regarded as a high-level Bodhisattva. The Dalai Lama is considered by the Gelugpa sect and many other Tibetan Buddhists to be the primary earthly manifestation of Chenrezig. The Karmapa is considered by the Karma Kagyu sect to be Chenrezig's primary manifestation. It is said that Padmasambhava prophesied that Avalokitesvara will manifest himself in the Tulku lineages of the Dalai Lamas and the Karmapas. Another Tibetan source explains that Buddha Amithaba gave to one of his two main disciples, Avalokitesvara, the task to take upon himself the burden of caring for Tibet. That is why he has manifested himself not only as spiritual teachers in Tibet but also in the form of kings (like Trisong Detsen) or ministers.
Other manifestations popular in Tibet include Sahasra-bhuja (a form with a thousand arms) and Ekadasamukha (a form with eleven faces).
In Tibetan Buddhism, White Tara acts as the consort and energizer of Avalokitesvara/Chenrezig. According to popular belief, Tara came into existence from a single tear shed by Chenrezig. When the tear fell to the ground it created a lake, and a lotus opening in the lake revealed Tara. In another version of this story, Tara emerges from the heart of Chenrezig. In either version, it is Chenrezig's outpouring of compassion which manifests Tara as a being.
Bhattacharyya, Benoytosh , 1958. Indian Buddhist Iconography. Calcutta: K. L. Mukhopadhyay. Pp. 88–89, 124–44, 394–431 - References to the iconography of Avalokitesvara
Chandra, Lokesh, 1986. Buddhist Iconography of Tibet (CBIT). Rinsen Book Co.. Nos. 29–30, 82, 90, 102, 120, 561, 610–41, 707, 761–66, 782, 936–39, 1015, 1626, 2278 (75), 2297–99 (94–96), 2350 (147) - References to the iconography of Avalokitesvara
de Mallmann, Marie-Thérèse, 1948. Introduction à l’étude d’Avalokitesvara. Annales du Musée Guimet; bibliotheque d’études. Tome 57. Paris: Civilisation du Sud. References to the iconography of Avalokitesvara
de Mallmann, Marie-Thérèse, 1975. Introduction à l'iconographie du tântrisme bouddhique. Paris: Adrien Mainsonneuve (Jean Maisonneuve successeur (1970). Pp. 105–114 - References to the iconography of Avalokitesvara
Lee, Junghee, 1993. “The Origins and Development of the Pensive Bodhisattva Images in Asia”, AA, Vol. LIII, Nos. 3/4. Artibus Asiae . Pp. 311–57, 44 figs - References to the iconography of the “pensive gesture”
Quagliotti, Ana Maria, 1996. “‘Pensive’ Bodhisattvas on ‘Narrative’ Gandharan Reliefs. A Note on a Recent Study and Related Problems”, EWNS, Vol. 46, Nos. 1–2. East and West, New Series. Pp. 97–115, 11 figs - References to the iconography of the “pensive gesture”
von Schroeder, Ulrich, 1981. Indo-Tibetan Bronzes. Hong Kong: Visual Dharma Publications, Ltd.. Pp. 84–85, pl. 6G: The Metropolitan Museum of Art: no.1974.273; pl. 6I: The Asia Society: Mr. & Mrs. John D. Rockefeller Collection - Compare with two very similar images in American collections
von Schroeder, Ulrich, 2010. Buddhist Sculptures of the Alain Bordier Foundation. Hong Kong: Visual Dharma Publications, Ltd.. pp. 10-11 ; pl. 2B