Code: ABS 063
Country: Tibet (central)
Date: 1050 - 1150
Dimensions in cm WxHxD: 4.7 x 15 x 4
Solid cast in one piece.
The separately cast pedestal is lost.
The garment is decorated with engraved ornaments.
The face has traces of cold gold and the hair of a blue pigment.
Manjusri (Tib. ’Jam dpal dbyangs) is standing in a slightly bent attitude (abhanga) on a stand originally mounted upon a lotus pedestal. The right hand is lifted and holds a sword (khadga), and the left hand holds the stalk of a flower, which according to the sadhanasof Manjusri should be a blue lily (nilotpala), blossoming at the shoulder level and originally decorated with the manuscript (pustaka) of the Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra emblem. The Bodhisattva is clad with a cloth tied around the waist with a beaded belt. He is bedecked with princely ornaments, namely a one-pointed crown in front of the tall matted hair (jatamukuta), a pair of circular earrings, two necklaces, the “investiture with the sacred thread” (upavita) and ornaments at upper arms and wrists.
It can be assumed that originally this image formed part of a group of three standing images consisting of Manjusri (Tib. ’Jam dpal dbyangs) with Padmapani (Tib. Phyag na padmo) and either Vajrasattva (Tib. rDo rje sems dpa’) or Vajrapani (Tib. Phyag na rdo rje).
The Sadhanamala (SM) contains eight sadhanas of Manjusri holding in the right hand a sword (khadga) and either holding in front of the chest or placed upon a blue lily (nilotpala) the manuscript (pustaka) of the Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra (SM 44, 45, 55, 56, 58, 65, 74, 80). The described forms of Manjusri are listed under different names: Sthiracakra seated in vajraparyanka (SM 44, 45); Girgariman (SM 44, 45); Giram-isvara (SM 44); Vagisa (SM 44); Manjusri (SM 44, 56, 58, 65, 80); Vagvibhu (SM 44); Manjuvajra (SM 13); Arapacana (SM 45, 56, 58, 65, 80); Manjughosa (SM 55, 56, 58, 65, 74); Giram-guru-manjuvara (SM 65); Manjunatha (SM 74); Vajratiksna seated in vajraparyanka (SM 74, 80); Prajnacakra seated in sattvaparyanka (SM 80).
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Manjushree, also written Manjushri, is the bodhisattva of keen awareness in Buddhism. A disciple of the historical Buddha Shakyamuni, he represents wisdom, intelligence and realisation, and is one of the most popular Bodhisattvas following Avalokitesvara (Ch: Guan Yin).
Together with Shakyamuni and fellow disciple Samantabhadra he forms the Shakyamuni trinity (Jp: Sanzon Shaka). Manjusri is one of the Eight Wisdom Bodhisattvas and one of the Japanese Thirteen Buddhas. In Tibetan Buddhism he sometimes is depicted in a trinity with Avalokiteshvara and Vajrapani.
Manjusri is mentioned in many Mahayana sutras, particularly the Prajnaparamita Sutras. The Lotus Sutra assigns him a paradise called Vimala, which according to the Avatamsaka Sutra is located in the east. His consort in some traditions is Saraswati. He is also sometimes called Manjughosha.
Within Tibetan Buddhism, Manjushri is a tantric meditational deity or Yidam, and considered a fully enlightened Buddha.
Chanting the Manjusri Mantra "Om Ah Ra Pa Tsa Na Dhih" is believed to enhance wisdom and improve one's skills in debating, memory, writing, explaining etc. "Dhih" is the seed syllable of the mantra and is chanted with greater emphasis.
A male Bodhisattva, he is depicted wielding a flaming sword in his right hand, representing his realisation of wisdom which cuts through ignorance and wrong views. The scripture supported by the flower held in his left hand is the Prajnaparamita, representing his attainment of ultimate realisation and Enlightenment. Variations upon his traditional form as Manjusri include Guhya-Manjusri, Guhya-Manjuvajra, and Manjuswari, most of which are Tantric forms associated with Tibetan Buddhism. The two former appearances are generally accompanied by a shakti deity embracing the main figure, symbolising union of form and spirit, matter and energy.
According to legend Nurhaci, a military leader of the Jurchen tribes and founder of what became the Chinese imperial Qing Dynasty, believed himself to be a reincarnation of Manjusri. He therefore is said to have renamed his tribe the Manchu.
Yamantaka (meaning “terminator of Yama i.e. Death”) is seen as a wrathful manifestation of Manjushri, the buddha of wisdom. Yamāntaka (Tibetan: Shinjeshe Wylie: Gshin-rje-gshed) is a Mahayana Buddhist yidam or iṣṭadevata of the Highest Yoga Tantra class in Vajrayana, popular within the Geluk school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Role in Nepalese Mythology
According to Swayambhu Purana, the Kathmandu Valley was once a lake. It is believed that Manjushri saw a lotus flower in the center of the lake and cut a gorge at Chovar to allow the lake to drain. The place where the lotus flower settled became Swayambhunath Stupa and the valley thus became habitable.
The Newars of the Kathmandu Valley, who adhere to both Buddhism and Hinduism, revere him as the Bodhisattva of Wisdom.
de Mallmann, Marie-Thérèse, 1964. Étude iconographique sur Manjusri. Paris: École Française d’Extrème-Orient. References to the iconography of Manjusri
de Mallmann, Marie-Thérèse, 1975. Introduction à l'iconographie du tântrisme bouddhique. Paris: Adrien Mainsonneuve (Jean Maisonneuve successeur (1970). Pp. 250-257 - References to the iconography of Manjusri
Sèngué, Tcheuky, 2002. Petite Encyclopédie des Divinités et symboles du Bouddhisme Tibétain. Editions Claire Lumiere . Pp. 164 / 185-191 - Références françaises: Manjushri