Code: ABS 115
Country: India (north-east)
Style: Late Pala Style
Date: 1050 - 1150
Dimensions in cm WxHxD: 7.8 x 14.6 x 7.8
Materials: Brass; solid cast in ten or more parts
The pedestal is not sealed.
This rare icon cast in the late Pala style is arranged as a Mandala of Buddha Shakyamuni (Tib. Sakya thub pa). The Buddha is seated in the centre of the Mandala in the diamond attitude (vajraparyankasana) on a double lotus pedestal. He displays the “gesture of the Wheel of the Law” (dharmacakra-mudra). The upper monastic garment (uttarasanga) is rendered with few folds and covers the left shoulder only. The three-dimensional Mandala is constructed in such a way that the closed object represents the bud of an eight-leaved lotus flower. The images thus only become visible when the lotus flower is open. To each of the eight lotus petals originally there were separately cast objects attached. In the case of the 5-Deity Mandala of Buddha Shakyamuni as propounded in the Trisamayavyuha, there would have been two male ant two female attendant deities attached to four of the petals: Vajradhara (Tib. rDo rje 'dzin pa); Vajradhara (Tib. rDo rje 'dzin ma); Anantadaraka (Tib. Khye'u mtha yas pa); and Anantadarika (Tib. Bu mo mtha' yas ma). The other four lotus petals would have been ornamented with Buddhist emblems.
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Siddhartha Gautama or Siddhattha Gotama, in Pali, was a spiritual teacher from ancient India and the founder of Buddhism. He is generally recognized by Buddhists as the Supreme Buddha (Sammasambuddha) of our age. The precise nature of such a supreme Buddha whether "merely" human or a transcendental, immortal, god-transcending being - is differently construed in Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. Theravada tends to view him as a super-human personage of supreme teaching skill and wisdom (uncontactable after his physical death), whereas Mahayana Buddhism goes further and tends to see him as a projection of an eternal, ultimate principle of Buddhahood (see Dharmakaya), present in all phenomena, immortal and transcendent.
The time of his birth and death are uncertain: most early 20th century historians date his lifetime from circa 563 BCE to 483 BCE; more recently, however, at a specialist symposium on this question, the majority of those scholars who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha's death, with others supporting earlier or later dates.
Gautama, also known as Shakyamuni or Shakyamuni (Skt.; Pali: Shakyamuni; English: “sage of the Shakya clan”), is the key figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules were said to have been summarized after his death and memorized by the sangha. Passed down by oral tradition, the Tipitaka, the collection of teachings attributed to Gautama by the Theravada, was committed to writing some centuries later.
The Buddha's life
The prime sources of information regarding Siddhārtha Gautama's life are the Buddhist texts. The Buddha and his monks spent four months each year discussing and rehearsing his teachings, and after his death his monks set about preserving them. A council was held shortly after his death, and another was held a century later. At these councils the monks attempted to establish and authenticate the extant accounts of the life and teachings of the Buddha following systematic rules. They divided the teachings into distinct but overlapping bodies of material and assigned specific monks to preserve each one. The teaching was thus preserved orally for three centuries after the Buddha's death when they were finally recorded on palm-leaf scrolls that were arranged in three baskets (Pali: ti-pitaka). By this point, the monks had added or altered some material themselves, in particular magnifying the figure of the Buddha.
The ancient Indians were not concerned with chronologies, being far more focused on philosophy. The Buddhist texts reflect this tendency, and we have a much clearer picture of what the Buddha thought than of the dates of the events in his life. These texts contain descriptions of the culture and daily life of ancient India which can be corroborated from the Jain scriptures, and make the Buddha's time the earliest period in Indian history for which substantial accounts exist.
The following is a summary of what is found in these texts.
Conception and birth
Siddhartha was born more than 200 years before the reign of the Maurya king Asoka (273–232 BCE).
Siddhartha was born in Lumbini and raised in the small kingdom or principality of Kapilavastu. His father was King Suddhodana, the chief of the Shakya nation, one of several ancient tribes in the growing state of Kosala; Gautama was the family name.
As was the Shakya tradition, when his mother Queen Maya fell pregnant, she returned to her father's kingdom to give birth, but after leaving Kapilvastu, she gave birth along the way at Lumbini in a garden beneath a sal tree.
The day of the Buddha's birth is widely celebrated in Theravada countries as Vesak. Various sources hold that the Buddha's mother died at his birth, a few days or seven days later. The infant was given the name Siddhartha (Pāli: Siddhattha), meaning “he who achieves his aim”. During the birth celebrations, the hermit seer Asita journeyed from his mountain abode and announced that the child would either become a great king (chakravartin) or a great holy man. This occurred after Siddhartha placed his feet in Asita's hair and Asita examined the birthmarks. Suddhodarna held a naming ceremony on the fifth day and invited eight brahmin scholars to read the future. All gave a dual prediction that the baby would either become a great king or a great holy man. Kaundinya (Pali: Kondanna), the youngest, and later to be the first arahant, was the only one who unequivocally predicted that Siddhartha would become a Buddha.
While later tradition and legend characterized Śuddhodana as a hereditary monarch, the descendant of the Solar Dynasty of Iksvaku (Pali: Okkaka), many scholars believe that Suddhodana was the elected chief of a tribal confederacy.
Early life and marriage
Siddhartha, destined to a luxurious life as a prince, had three palaces (for seasonal occupation) especially built for him. His father, King Suddhodana, wishing for Siddhartha to be a great king, shielded his son from religious teachings or knowledge of human suffering. Siddhartha was brought up by his mother's younger sister, Maha Pajapati.
As the boy reached the age of 16, his father arranged his marriage to Yasodhara (Pali: Yasodhara), a cousin of the same age. In time, she gave birth to a son, Rahula. Siddhartha spent 29 years as a Prince in Kapilavastu. Although his father ensured that Siddhartha was provided with everything he could want or need, Siddhartha felt that material wealth was not the ultimate goal of life.
The Great Renunciation
At the age of 29, Siddhartha left his palace in order to meet his subjects. Despite his father's effort to remove the sick, aged and suffering from the public view, Siddhartha was said to have seen an old man. Disturbed by this, when told that all people would eventually grow old by his charioteer Channa, the prince went on further trips where he encountered, variously, a diseased man, a decaying corpse, and an ascetic. Deeply depressed by these sights, he sought to overcome old age, illness, and death by living the life of an ascetic.
Siddhartha escaped his palace, accompanied by Channa aboard his horse Kanthaka, leaving behind this royal life to become a mendicant. It is said that, "the horse's hooves were muffled by the gods" to prevent guards from knowing the Bodhisatta's departure. This event is known as "The Great Departure".
Siddhartha initially went to Rajagaha and began his ascetic life by begging for alms in the street. Having been recognised by the men of King Bimbisara, Bimbisara offered him the throne after hearing of Siddhartha's quest. Siddhartha rejected the offer, but promised to visit his kingdom of Magadha first, upon attaining enlightenment.
Siddhartha left Rajagaha and practiced under two hermit teachers. After mastering the teachings of Alara Kalama, Siddhartha was asked by Kalama to succeed him, but moved on after being unsatisfied with his practices. He then became a student of Udaka Ramaputta, but although he achieved high levels of meditative consciousness and was asked to succeed Ramaputta, he was still not satisfied with his path, and moved on.
Siddhartha and a group of five companions led by Kondanna then set out to take their austerities even further. They tried to find enlightenment through near total deprivation of worldly goods, including food, practicing self-mortification.
After nearly starving himself to death by restricting his food intake to around a leaf or nut per day, he collapsed in a river while bathing and almost drowned. Siddhartha began to reconsider his path. As he laid there, a boat passed him and he overheard the conversation that the two musicians aboard it were saying: "If you tighten the string too tight it will snap, but if it is too loose it will not play." From this, he realised that he would have to take a "middle-way" to reach enlightenment and not by using extremes. Then, he remembered a moment in childhood in which he had been watching his father start the season's plowing, and he had fallen into a naturally concentrated and focused state that was blissful and refreshing, the jhana. Coming out of the jhana, he realised that a village girl named Sujata was standing over him with a bowl of porridge.
The Great Enlightenment
After asceticism and concentrating on meditation and anapanasati (awareness of breathing in and out), Siddhartha is said to have discovered what Buddhists call the Middle Way—a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. He accepted a little milk and rice pudding from a village girl named Sujata, who wrongly believed him to be the spirit that had granted her a wish, such was his emaciated appearance. Then, sitting under a pipal tree, now known as the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, he vowed never to arise until he had found the Truth. Kaundinya and the other four companions, believing that he had abandoned his search and become undisciplined, left. After 49 days meditating, at the age of 35, he attained Enlightenment; according to some traditions, this occurred approximately in the fifth lunar month, and according to others in the twelfth. Gautama, from then on, was known as the Buddha or "Awakened One." Buddha is also sometimes translated as "The Enlightened One." Often, he is referred to in Buddhism as Shakyamuni Buddha or "The Awakened One of the Shakya Clan."
At this point, he realized complete awakening and insight into the nature and cause of human suffering which was ignorance, along with steps necessary to eliminate it. These truths were then categorized into the Four Noble Truths; the state of supreme liberation—possible for any being—was called Nirvana. He then came to possess the Nine Characteristics, which are said to belong to every Buddha.
According to one of the stories in the Ayacana Sutta (Samyutta Nikaya VI.1), a scripture found in the Pali and other canons, immediately after his Enlightenment, the Buddha was wondering whether or not he should teach the Dharma to human beings. He was concerned that, as human beings were overpowered by greed, hatred and delusion, they would not be able to see the true dharma, which was subtle, deep and hard to understand. However, a divine spirit, Brahmā Sahampati, interceded and asked that he teach the dharma to the world, as "there will be those who will understand the Dharma". With his great compassion to all beings in the universe, the Buddha agreed to become a teacher.
Formation of the sangha
After becoming enlightened, two merchants whom the Buddha met, named Tapussa and Bhallika became the first lay disciples. They are given some hairs from the Buddha's head, which are believed to now be enshrined in the Shwe Dagon Temple in Rangoon, Burma. The Buddha intended to visit Asita, and his former teachers, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta to explain his findings, but they had already died.
The Buddha thus journeyed to Deer Park near Vārāṇasī (Benares) in northern India, he set in motion the Wheel of Dharma by delivering his first sermon to the group of five companions with whom he had previously sought enlightenment. They, together with the Buddha, formed the first sangha, the company of Buddhist monks, and hence, the first formation of Triple Gem (Buddha, Dharma and Sangha) was completed, with Kaundinya becoming the first stream-enterer. All five soon become arahants, and with the conversion of Yasa and fifty four of his friends, the number of arahants swelled to 60 within the first two months. The conversion of the three Kassapa brothers and their 200, 300 and 500 disciples swelled the sangha over 1000, and they were dispatched to explain the dharma to the populace.
For the remaining 45 years of his life, the Buddha is said to have traveled in the Gangetic Plain, in what is now Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and southern Nepal, teaching his doctrine and discipline to an extremely diverse range of people - from nobles to outcaste street sweepers, mass murderers such as Angulimala and cannibals such as Alavaka. This extended to many adherents of rival philosophies and religions. The Buddha founded the community of Buddhist monks and nuns (the Sangha) to continue the dispensation after his Parinirvāna(Pāli: Parinibbāna) or "complete Nirvāna", and made thousands of converts. His religion was open to all races and classes and had no caste structure. He was also subject to attack from opposition religious groups, including attempted murders and framings.
The sangha travelled from place to place in India, expounding the dharma. This occurred throughout the year, except during the four months of the vassana rainy season. Due to the heavy amount of flooding, travelling was difficult, and ascetics of all religions in that time did not travel, since it was more difficult to do so without stepping on submerged animal life, unwittingly killing them. During this period, the sangha would retreat to a monastery, public park or a forest and people would come to them.
The first vassana was spent at Varanasi when the sangha was first formed. After this, he travelled to Rajagaha, the capital of Magadha to visit King Bimbisara, in accordance with his promise after enlightenment. It was during this visit that Sariputta and Mahamoggallana were converted by Assaji, one of the first five disciples; they were to become the Buddha's two foremost disciples. The Buddha then spent the next three seasons at Veluvana Bamboo Grove monastery in Rajagaha, the capital of Magadha. The monastery, which was of a moderate distance from the city centre was donated by Bimbisara.
Upon hearing of the enlightenment, Suddhodana dispatched royal delegations to ask the Buddha to return to Kapilavastu. Nine delegations were sent in all, but the delegates joined the sangha and became arahants. Neglecting worldly matters, they did not convey their message. The tenth delegation, lead by Kaludayi, a childhood friend, resulted in the message being successfully conveyed as well as becoming an arahant. Since it was not the vassana, the Buddha agreed, and two years after his enlightenment, took a two month journey to Kapilavastu by foot, preaching the dharma along the way. Upon his return, the royal palace had prepared the midday meal, but since no specific invitation had come, the sangha went for an alms round in Kapilavastu. Hearing this, Suddhodana hastened to approach the Buddha, stating "Ours is the warrior lineage of Mahamassata, and not a single warrior has gone seeking alms", to which the Buddha replied: "That is not the custom of your royal lineage. But it is the custom of my Buddha lineage. Several thousands of Buddhas have gone by seeking alms."
Suddhodana invited the sangha back to the royal palace for the meal, followed by a dharma talk, after which he became a sotapanna. During the visit, many members of the royal family joined the sangha. His cousins Ananda and Anuruddha were to become two of his five chief disciples. His son Rahula also joined the sangha at the age of seven and was one of the ten chief disciples. His half-brother Nanda also joined the sangha and became an arahant. Another cousin Devadatta also became a monk although he later became an enemy and tried to kill the Buddha on multiple occasions.
Of his disciples, Sariputta, Mahamoggallana, Mahakasyapa, Ananda and Anuruddha comprised the five chief disciples. His ten foremost disciples were completed by the quintet of Upali, Subhoti, Rahula, Mahakaccana and Punna.
In the fifth vassana, the Buddha was staying at Mahavana near Vesali. Hearing of the impending death of Suddhodana, the Buddha went to his father and preached the dharma, and Suddhodana became an arahant prior to death. The death and cremation led to the creation of the order of nuns. Buddhist texts record that he was reluctant to ordain women as nuns. His foster mother Maha Pajapati approached him asking to join the sangha, but the Buddha refused, and began the journey from Kapilavastu back to Rajagaha. Maha Pajapati was so intent on renouncing the world that she lead a group of royal Sakyan and Koliyan ladies, following the sangha to Rajagaha. The Buddha eventually accepted them five years after the formation of the Sangha on the grounds that their capacity for enlightenment was equal to that of men, but he gave them certain additional rules (Vinaya) to follow. This occurred after Ananda interceded on their behalf. Yasodhara also became a nun, with both becoming arahants.
During his ministry, Devadatta (who was not an arahant) frequently tried to undermine the Buddha. At one point Devadatta asked the Buddha to stand aside to let him lead the sangha. The Buddha declined, and stated that Devadatta's actions did not reflect on the Triple Gem, but on him alone. Devadatta conspired with Prince Ajatasattu, son of Bimbisara, so that they would kill and usurp the Buddha and Bimbisara respectively. Devadatta attempted three times to kill the Buddha. The first attempt involved the hiring of a group of archers, whom upon meeting the Buddha became disciples. A second attempt followed when Devadatta attempted to roll a large boulder down a hill. It hit another rock and splintered, only grazing the Buddha in the foot. A final attempt by plying an elephant with alcohol and setting it loose again failed. Failing this, Devadatta attempted to cause a schism in the sangha, by proposing extra restrictions on the vinaya. When the Buddha declined, Devadatta started a breakaway order, criticising the Buddha's laxity. At first, he managed to convert some of the bhikkhus(monks), but Sariputta and Mahamoggallana expounded the dharma to them and succeeded in winning them back.
When the Buddha reached the age of 55, he made Ananda his chief attendant.
According to the Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Pali canon, at the age of 80, the Buddha announced that he would soon enter Parinirvanaor the final deathless state abandoning the earthly body. After this, the Buddha ate his last meal, which, according to different translations, was either a mushroom delicacy or soft pork, which he had received as an offering from a blacksmith named Cunda. Falling violently ill, Buddha instructed his attendant Ananda to convince Cunda that the meal eaten at his place had nothing to do with his passing and that his meal would be a source of the greatest merit as it provided the last meal for a Buddha.
The Mahayana Vimalakirti Sutra explains, in Chapter 3, that the Buddha doesn't really become ill or old but purposely presents such an appearance only to teach those born during the five defilements the impermanence and pain of defiled worlds and to strive for Nirvana.
"'Reverend Ananda, the Tathagatashave the body of the Dharma - not a body that is sustained by material food. The Tathagatashave a transcendental body that has transcended all mundane qualities. There is no injury to the body of a Tathagata, as it is rid of all defilements. The body of a Tathagatais uncompounded and free of all formative activity. Reverend Ananda, to believe there can be illness in such a body is irrational and unseemly! Nevertheless, since the Buddha has appeared during the time of the five corruptions, he disciplines living beings by acting lowly and humble."
Ananda protested Buddha's decision to enter Parinirvanain the abandoned jungles of Kusinara (Pali: Kusinara) of the Mallas. Buddha, however, reminded Ananda how Kushinara was a land once ruled by a righteous wheel-turning king that resounded with joy: "Kusavati, Ananda, resounded unceasingly day and night with ten sounds - the trumpeting of elephants, the neighing of horses, the rattling of chariots, the beating of drums and tambours, music and song, cheers, the clapping of hands, and cries of "Eat, drink, and be merry!"" Buddha then asked all the attendantBhikshusto clarify any doubts or questions they had. They had none. He then finally entered Parinirvana. The Buddha's final words were, "All composite things pass away. Strive for your own liberation with diligence." The Buddha's body was cremated and the relics were placed in monuments or stupas, some of which are believed to have survived until the present. For example, The Temple of the Tooth or "Dalada Maligawa" in Sri Lanka is the place where the relic of the right tooth of Buddha is kept at present.
According to the Pali historical chronicles of Sri Lanka, the Dspavamsa and Mahavamsa, the coronation of Asoka (Pali: Asoka) is 218 years after the death of Buddha. According to one Mahayana record in Chinese, the coronation of Asoka is 116 years after the death of Buddha. Therefore, the time of Buddha's passing is either 486 BCE according to Theravada record or 383 BCE according to Mahayana record. However, the actual date traditionally accepted as the date of the Buddha's death in Theravada countries is 544 or 543 BCE, because the reign of Asoka was traditionally reckoned to be about 60 years earlier than current estimates.
At his death, the Buddha told his disciples to follow no leader, but to follow his teachings (dharma). However, at the First Buddhist Council, Mahakasyapa was held by the sangha as their leader, with the two chief disciples Mahamoggallana and Sariputta having died before the Buddha.
Buddha is perhaps one of the few sages for whom we have mention of his rather impressive physical characteristics. A kshatriyaby birth, he had military training in his upbringing, and by Shakyantradition was required to pass tests to demonstrate his worthiness as a warrior in order to marry. He had a strong enough body to be noticed by one of the kings and was asked to join his army as a general. He is also believed by Buddhists to have "the 32 Signs of the Great Man".
The Brahmin Sonadanda described him as "handsome, good-looking, and pleasing to the eye, with a most beautiful complexion. He has a godlike form and countenance, he is by no means unattractive."(D,I:115). "It is wonderful, truly marvellous, how serene is the good Gotama's appearance, how clear and radiant his complexion, just as the golden jujube in autumn is clear and radiant, just as a palm-tree fruit just loosened from the stalk is clear and radiant, just as an adornment of red gold wrought in a crucible by a skilled goldsmith, deftly beaten and laid on a yellow-cloth shines, blazes and glitters, even so, the good Gotama's senses are calmed, his complexion is clear and radiant." (A,I:181) A disciple named Vakkali, who later became an Arahant, was so obsessed by Buddha's physical presence that Buddha has to tell him to stop and reminded Vakkali to know Buddha through the Dhamma and not physical appearances.
Although the Buddha was not represented in human form until around the 1st century CE (see Buddhist art), the physical characteristics of fully-enlightened Buddhas are described by the Buddha in the Digha Nikaya's Lakkhaṇa Sutta (D,I:142). In addition, the Buddha's physical appearance is described by Yasodhara to their son Rahula upon the Buddha's first post-Enlightenment return to his former princely palace in the non-canonical Pali devotional hymn, Narasiha Gatha ("The Lion of Men").
Certain basic teachings appear in many places throughout the early texts, so most scholars conclude that the Buddha must at least have taught something of the kind:
* the three characteristics
* the five aggregates
* dependent arising
* karma and rebirth
* the four noble truths
* the eightfold path
Some scholars disagree and have proposed many other theories.
Different Buddhist traditions attribute a variety of texts and teachings to the Buddha (See Buddhist texts).
It is unknown what language or languages the Buddha spoke, and no conclusive documentation has been made at this point. However, some modern scholars, primarily philologists, believe it is most likely that the Buddha spoke some form or forms of a vulgate then current in eastern India, Magadhi Prakrit.
No. - Marks ( Lakkhana ) - Significance
1 - Well-supported feet - Firm undertaking
2 - Wheels arise beneath the sole of the feet - Great retinues
3 - The heels are projecting - Long life
4 - The fingers and toes are long - Long life
5 - The hands and feet are soft and tender - Well-united with people
6 - The hands and feet are net-like - Well-united with people
7 - The ankles are raised like conch shells - Becomes the best
8 - The lower part of the leg is like an antelope's - Gets the best things quickly
9 - He can touch and rub around his knees with both palms, while tanding, and without bending - Great wealth
10 - The part which should be concealed by garments, is covered by a bag - Many sons
11 - The skin shines like gold - Get finest furnishings and garments
12 - Subtle skin: dirt and sweat do not stick to his body - Great wisdom
13 - Single hairs arise, one to each pore - Well-respected
14 - The hair pointing upwards; dark, black in colour, turning in rings to the right - Becomes the best
15 - The frame is straight like Brahma - Long life
16 - There are seven outflows on his hands, on his feet, at the tips of the shoulders, and at the top of the back - Obtains excellent foods
17 - The upper part of the body is lion-like - No loss
18 - The hollow between his shoulders is filled - No loss
19 - The body is proportionate: the body is as long as the span of the arms - Great wealth
20 - The shoulders are evenly rounded - No loss
21 - He releases the highest of tastes - Very healthy
22 - The jaw is lion-like - He cannot be overthrown
23 - There are forty teeth - The assemblies cannot be divided
24 - The teeth are even - Pure retinues
25 - The teeth are undivided - The assemblies cannot be divided
26 - The visible teeth are very white - Pure retinues
27 - A mighty tongue - His words are heeded
28 - The voice of Brahma and also resembles the song of a karavika bird - His words are heeded
29 - The eyes are very blue - Attractive look
30 - The Eyelashes are like those of a cow - Attractive look
31 - The filament between the eyebrows is white like soft cotton - Well-respected
32 - The head is turban-crowned - Many followers
Chandra, Lokesh, 1974. Sadhanamala of the (4th) Panchen Lama, Vol. 1. New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture. Pp. 145-153 - References to the iconography of Trisamayavyuhamuni
Chandra, Lokesh, 1991. Buddhist Iconography of Tibet (CBIT). New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture & Aditya Prakashan. No 525 of the Nartang Pantheon (511-1009): Trisamayavyuhamuni (Thub pa dam tshig gsum bkod) - References to the iconography of Trisamayavyuhamuni
Cordier, Palmyr, 1909. Catalogue du fonds tibétain de la Bibliothèque National. Paris: Imprimérie Nationale. 2.298, 3.268 - References to the iconography of Trisamayavyuhamuni
Tachikawa, Musachi et al. (eds.), 1991. The Ngor Mandalas of Tibet (NM) bSod nams rgya mtsho: Ngor collection of the 139 rGyud sde kun btus Mandalas), 2 Vols. Tokyo: The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies. P .2, no. 2 - References to the 5-Deity Mandala of Buddha Sakyamuni as propounded in the Trisamayavyuha
von Schroeder, Ulrich, 2001. Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet. Vol. One: India & Nepal; Vol. Two: Tibet & China. Hong Kong: Visual Dharma Publications, Ltd.. Vol. One: India & Nepal, pp. 304-307; pls. 103-104 - Compare with other Mandalas of North-Eastern Indian origin
von Schroeder, Ulrich, 2010. Buddhist Sculptures of the Alain Bordier Foundation. Hong Kong: Visual Dharma Publications, Ltd.. Pp. 16–17; plate 5B
Zwalf, Wladimir (ed.), 1985. Buddhism: Art and Faith, (Catalogue of the exhibition held at the British Museum). London: British Museum Publ. P. 115, no. 153: Lotus mandala of aksobhya with vajra in front. According to the Sanskrit inscription donated by the layman Dantanaga. Eastern India, 12th century - Compare with other Mandalas of North-Eastern Indian origin