Code: ABS 026
Country: Tibet (central)
Date: 1400 - 1500
Dimensions in cm WxHxD: 13.7 x 19 x 6.9
The jewelled ornaments are inset with turquoise, some of which are lost.
The garment is decorated with engraved patterns.
The face has traces of painted cold gold and the hair is painted with a red pigment.
The bottom of the pedestal is not sealed, but the back of the image is sealed with a metal plate.
The fearsome three-eyed Candavajrapani (Tib. Phyag rdor gtum po) is stepping on a double lotus pedestal with an upper beaded border to the right with the right leg bent and the left straight (pratyalidhasana). He brandishes in the right uplifted hand a five-pronged diamond sceptre (vajra), and displays with the left hand the gesture of exorcism (karana-mudra). Vajrapani is sparsely dressed with a tiger skin (vyaghracarma) tied below the protruding belly. He wears the five fold crown and a vajrafinal on top of the tall crown of matted hair (jatamukuta), a pair of earrings, two necklaces with attached pendants, ornaments on the upper arms, bracelets, anklets and ornaments on the feet. The jeweled ornaments are composed of vajra emblems and the “investiture with the sacred thread” (nagopavita), anklets and a second pair of bracelets are composed of snake ornaments. On both side of the image swirling veils are attached.
vajra emblem symbolizing Akshobhya
vajra emblem Karana mudra
In this study the following forms of Vajrapani are distinguished: Bodhisattva Vajrapani (Tib. Phyag na rdo rje) in the bodhisattva attitude; Candavajrapani (Tib. Phyag rdor gtum po), a wrathful form with vajraand tarjani mudra; Nilambaradhara Vajrapani (Tib. Phyag rdor gos sngon can), a wrathful form with vajraand ghantaattributes; Sri Ucarya Vajrapani (Tib. Phyag rdor u tsa rya), a wrathful form with vajra and ghanta attributes, and garuda (Tib. Khyung) emblems; Mahacakra Vajrapani (Tib. ’Khor lo chen po), a six-armed and three-headed wrathful form with vajra and ghanta attributes, and naga emblems. This division does not take into account all the numerous Tibetan forms with other names. The descriptions in the Sadhanamala of the black-coloured Candavajrapani (Tib. Phyag rdor gtum po) (SM 280) and the blue-coloured two-armed form of Vighnantaka (Tib. Gegs mthar byed) (SM 281) are with the exception of the colour almost identical. It is therefore difficult to distinguish between images of Candavajrapani and the two-armed form of Vighnantaka.
Vajrapani (from Sanskrit vajra, "thunderbolt" or "diamond" and pani, lit. "in the hand") is one of the earliest bodhisattvas of Mahayana Buddhism. He is the protector and guide of the Buddha and rose to symbolize the Buddha's power. Vajrapani was used extensively in Buddhist iconography as one of the three protective deities surrounding the Buddha. Each of them symbolizes one of the Buddha's virtues: Manjusri (the manifestation of all the Buddhas' wisdom), Avalokitesvara (the manifestation of all the Buddhas' compassion) and Vajrapani (the manifestation of all the Buddhas' power)
In Sanskrit, Vajrapani is known as Vajrapanina bodhisattvena mahasattvena, vajra-sattvaand, in Tibetan, as Lag na Rdo rje (Chana Dorji).
On the popular level, Vajrapani, Holder of the Thunderbolt Scepter (symbolizing the power of compassion), is the Bodhisattva who represents the power of all the Buddhas, just as Avalokitesvara represents their great compassion, Manjusri their wisdom, and Tara their miraculous deeds. For the yogi, Vajrapani is a means of accomplishing fierce determination and symbolizes unrelenting effectiveness in the conquest of negativity. His taut posture is the active warrior pose (pratayalidha), based on an archer's stance but resembling the en gardeposition in Western fencing. His outstretched right hand brandishes a vajra and his left hand deftly holds a lasso – with which he binds demons. He wears a skull crown with his hair standing on end. His expression is wrathful, and he has a third eye. Around his neck is a serpent necklace and his loin cloth is made up of the skin of a tiger, whose head can be seen on his right knee.
The first representations of Vajrapani in India associated him with the Hindu God Indra. As Buddhism expanded in Central Asia, and fused with Hellenistic influences into Greco-Buddhism, the Greek hero Hercules was adopted to represent Vajrapani. He was then typically depicted as a hairy, muscular athlete, wielding a short "diamond" club. Mahayana Buddhism then further spread to China, Korea and Japan from the 6th century.
In Japan, Vajrapani is known as Shukongōshin ("Diamond rod-wielding God"), and has been the inspiration for the Nio (lit. Benevolent kings), the wrath-filled and muscular guardian god of the Buddha, standing today at the entrance of many Buddhist temples under the appearance of frightening wrestler-like statues.
"The origin of the image of Vajrapani should be explained. This deity is the protector and guide of the Buddha Shakyamuni. His image was modelled after that of Hercules. (...) The Gandharan Vajrapani was transformed in Central Asia and China and afterwards transmitted to Japan, where it exerted stylistic influences on the wrestler-like statues of the Guardian Deities (Nio)." (Katsumi Tanabe, "Alexander the Great, East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan", p23).
Bhattacharyya, Benoytosh , 1958. Indian Buddhist Iconography. Calcutta: K. L. Mukhopadhyay. Pp. 43, 53, 98–99, 131 - References to the iconography of Vajrapani
de Mallmann, Marie-Thérèse, 1975. Introduction à l'iconographie du tântrisme bouddhique. Paris: Adrien Mainsonneuve (Jean Maisonneuve successeur (1970). Pp. 413-415 - References to the iconography of Vajrapani
Sèngué, Tcheuky, 2002. Petite Encyclopédie des Divinités et symboles du Bouddhisme Tibétain. Editions Claire Lumiere . Pp. 163 /192-196